Reproductive Biotechnology encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others. Efficient reproductive performance and monitoring are imperative for sustainability in any livestock production system, especially for milk, meat, draft, and replacement animals. In recent times, there has been increasing challenges for increasing productivity and disease with altering climate. These targets, thought to some extent, can be achieved by conventional reproduction techniques. Advent and use of modern reproductive technologies have opened many avenues to study, treat and manipulate the reproductive phenomenon both in vitro and in vivo to improve reproductive performance in various domestic species of livestock.